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维度模型数据仓库(十三) —— 退化维度

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(五)进阶技术
        8. 退化维度
        本篇讨论一种称为退化维度的技术。该技术减少维度的数量,简化维度数据仓库的模式。简单的模式比复杂的更容易理解,也有更好的查询性能。当一个维度没有数据仓库需要的任何数据时就可以退化此维度。需要把退化维度的相关数据迁移到事实表中,然后删除退化的维度。

        退化订单维度
        本节说明如何退化订单维度,包括对数据仓库模式和定期装载脚本的修改。使用维度退化技术时你首先要做的识别数据,分析从来不用的数据列。例如,订单维度的order_number列就可能是这样的一列。但如果用户想看事务的细节,还需要订单号。因此,在退化订单维度前,要把订单号迁移到sales_order_fact表。图(五)- 8-1显示了迁移后的模式。

图(五)- 8-1

        按顺序执行下面的四步退化order_dim维度表:
  1. 给sales_order_fact表添加order_number列
  2. 把order_dim表里的订单号迁移到sales_order_fact表
  3. 删除sales_order_fact表里的order_sk列
  4. 删除order_dim表
        清单(五)- 8-1里的脚本完成所有退化订单维度所需的步骤。
USE dw;
/* adding order_number column                                    */
ALTER TABLE sales_order_fact ADD order_number INT AFTER receive_date_sk;
/* loading existing order_number                                 */
UPDATE sales_order_fact a, order_dim b 
SET a.order_number = b.order_number
WHERE a.order_sk = b.order_sk;
/* removing order_sk column                                      */
SET foreign_key_checks=0;
ALTER TABLE sales_order_fact DROP FOREIGN KEY sales_order_fact_ibfk_1;
ALTER TABLE sales_order_fact DROP order_sk;
/* removing the order_dim table                                  */
DROP TABLE order_dim;
SET foreign_key_checks=1;

COMMIT;
清单(五)- 8-1

        使用下面的语句确认order_dim里的49个订单号已经迁移到sales_order_fact表,查询结果如下。
mysql> select count(0) from sales_order_fact where order_number IS NOT NULL;
+----------+
| count(0) |
+----------+
|       49 |
+----------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

        还应该使用下面的语句确认order_sk列已经从sales_order_fact表里删除了。
mysql> desc sales_order_fact;
+--------------------------+---------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field                    | Type          | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+--------------------------+---------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| customer_sk              | int(11)       | YES  | MUL | NULL    |       |
| product_sk               | int(11)       | YES  | MUL | NULL    |       |
| order_date_sk            | int(11)       | YES  | MUL | NULL    |       |
| allocate_date_sk         | int(11)       | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| packing_date_sk          | int(11)       | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| ship_date_sk             | int(11)       | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| receive_date_sk          | int(11)       | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| order_number             | int(11)       | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| request_delivery_date_sk | int(11)       | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| order_amount             | decimal(10,2) | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| order_quantity           | int(11)       | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| allocate_quantity        | int(11)       | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| packing_quantity         | int(11)       | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| ship_quantity            | int(11)       | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| receive_quantity         | int(11)       | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
+--------------------------+---------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
15 rows in set (0.01 sec)

        最后,使用下面的命令确认order_dim表已经被删除。
mysql> show tables;
+----------------------------+
| Tables_in_dw               |
+----------------------------+
| allocate_date_dim          |
| campaign_session_stg       |
| cdc_time                   |
| customer_dim               |
| customer_stg               |
| date_dim                   |
| month_dim                  |
| month_end_sales_order_fact |
| order_date_dim             |
| pa_customer_dim            |
| packing_date_dim           |
| product_dim                |
| product_stg                |
| promo_schedule_stg         |
| receive_date_dim           |
| request_delivery_date_dim  |
| sales_order_fact           |
| ship_date_dim              |
+----------------------------+
18 rows in set (0.00 sec)

        修改定期装载脚本
        退化一个维度后需要做的另一件事就是修改定期装载脚本。修改后的脚本需要把订单号加入到销售订单事实表,而不再需要导入订单维度。清单清单(五)- 8-2显示了修改后的定期装载脚本。
USE dw;

-- 设置SCD的截止时间和生效时间
SET @pre_date = SUBDATE(CURRENT_DATE,1) ;

-- 设置CDC的上限时间
UPDATE cdc_time SET current_load = CURRENT_DATE ;

-- 装载客户维度
TRUNCATE TABLE customer_stg;
INSERT INTO customer_stg
SELECT 
  customer_number
, customer_name
, customer_street_address
, customer_zip_code
, customer_city
, customer_state
, shipping_address
, shipping_zip_code
, shipping_city
, shipping_state
FROM source.customer ;
/* 在所有地址列上 SCD2                           */
/* 置过期                          */
UPDATE customer_dim a,
    customer_stg b 
SET 
    expiry_date = @pre_date
WHERE
    a.customer_number = b.customer_number
        AND (a.customer_street_address <> b.customer_street_address
        OR a.customer_city <> b.customer_city
        OR a.customer_zip_code <> b.customer_zip_code
        OR a.customer_state <> b.customer_state
        OR a.shipping_address <> b.shipping_address
        OR a.shipping_city <> b.shipping_city
        OR a.shipping_zip_code <> b.shipping_zip_code
        OR a.shipping_state <> b.shipping_state
        OR a.shipping_address IS NULL
        OR a.shipping_city IS NULL
        OR a.shipping_zip_code IS NULL
        OR a.shipping_state IS NULL)
        AND expiry_date = '2200-01-01';
/* 加新行                          */
INSERT INTO customer_dim
SELECT
  NULL
, b.customer_number
, b.customer_name
, b.customer_street_address
, b.customer_zip_code
, b.customer_city
, b.customer_state
, b.shipping_address
, b.shipping_zip_code
, b.shipping_city
, b.shipping_state
, a.version + 1
, @pre_date
, '2200-01-01'
FROM
  customer_dim a
, customer_stg b
WHERE
    a.customer_number = b.customer_number
AND ( a.customer_street_address <> b.customer_street_address
     OR a.customer_city <> b.customer_city
     OR a.customer_zip_code <> b.customer_zip_code
     OR a.customer_state <> b.customer_state
     OR a.shipping_address <> b.shipping_address
     OR a.shipping_city <> b.shipping_city
     OR a.shipping_zip_code <> b.shipping_zip_code
     OR a.shipping_state <> b.shipping_state
     OR a.shipping_address IS NULL
     OR a.shipping_city IS NULL
     OR a.shipping_zip_code IS NULL
     OR a.shipping_state IS NULL)
AND EXISTS(
SELECT *
FROM customer_dim x
WHERE
    b.customer_number=x.customer_number
AND a.expiry_date = @pre_date )
AND NOT EXISTS (
SELECT *
FROM customer_dim y
WHERE
    b.customer_number = y.customer_number
AND y.expiry_date = '2200-01-01') ;
/* 在 customer_name 列上 SCD1                                             */
UPDATE customer_dim a, customer_stg b
SET a.customer_name = b.customer_name
WHERE a.customer_number = b.customer_number
      AND a.customer_name <> b.customer_name ;
/* 新增的客户                                                   */
INSERT INTO customer_dim
SELECT
  NULL
, customer_number
, customer_name
, customer_street_address
, customer_zip_code
, customer_city
, customer_state
, shipping_address
, shipping_zip_code
, shipping_city
, shipping_state
, 1
, @pre_date
,'2200-01-01'
FROM customer_stg
WHERE customer_number NOT IN(
SELECT y.customer_number
FROM customer_dim x, customer_stg y
WHERE x.customer_number = y.customer_number) ;

/* 重建PA客户维度                               */
TRUNCATE pa_customer_dim;
INSERT INTO pa_customer_dim
SELECT
  customer_sk
, customer_number
, customer_name
, customer_street_address
, customer_zip_code
, customer_city
, customer_state
, shipping_address
, shipping_zip_code
, shipping_city
, shipping_state
, version
, effective_date
, expiry_date
FROM customer_dim
WHERE customer_state = 'PA' ;

/* 装载产品维度                                           */
TRUNCATE TABLE product_stg ;
INSERT INTO product_stg
SELECT 
  product_code
, product_name
, product_category
FROM source.product ;
/* 在 product_name 和 product_category 列上 SCD2                                    */
/* 置过期                                 */
UPDATE
  product_dim a
, product_stg b
SET
  expiry_date = @pre_date
WHERE
    a.product_code = b.product_code
AND (   a.product_name <> b.product_name
     OR a.product_category <> b.product_category)
AND expiry_date = '2200-01-01';
/* 加新行                                */
INSERT INTO product_dim
SELECT
  NULL
, b.product_code
, b.product_name
, b.product_category
, a.version + 1
, @pre_date
,'2200-01-01'
FROM
  product_dim a
, product_stg b
WHERE
    a.product_code = b.product_code
AND (   a.product_name <> b.product_name
     OR a.product_category <> b.product_category)
AND EXISTS(
SELECT *
FROM product_dim x
WHERE     b.product_code = x.product_code
      AND a.expiry_date = @pre_date)
AND NOT EXISTS (
SELECT *
FROM product_dim y
WHERE     b.product_code = y.product_code
      AND y.expiry_date = '2200-01-01') ;
/* 新增的产品                                                    */
INSERT INTO product_dim
SELECT
  NULL
, product_code
, product_name
, product_category
, 1
, @pre_date
, '2200-01-01'
FROM product_stg
WHERE product_code NOT IN(
SELECT y.product_code
FROM product_dim x, product_stg y
WHERE x.product_code = y.product_code) ;

-- 装载事实表,新增前一天的订单
INSERT INTO sales_order_fact
SELECT
  customer_sk
, product_sk
, e.order_date_sk
, NULL
, NULL
, NULL
, NULL
, a.order_number
, f.request_delivery_date_sk
, order_amount
, quantity
, NULL
, NULL
, NULL
, NULL
FROM
  source.sales_order a
, customer_dim c
, product_dim d
, order_date_dim e
, request_delivery_date_dim f
, cdc_time g
WHERE
	a.order_status = 'N'
AND a.customer_number = c.customer_number
AND a.status_date >= c.effective_date
AND a.status_date < c.expiry_date
AND a.product_code = d.product_code
AND a.status_date >= d.effective_date
AND a.status_date < d.expiry_date
AND a.status_date = e.order_date
AND a.request_delivery_date = f.request_delivery_date
AND a.entry_date >= g.last_load AND a.entry_date < g.current_load ;

/* UPDATING the new sales order to Allocated status           */
UPDATE sales_order_fact a,
    source.sales_order b,
    allocate_date_dim c,
    cdc_time h
SET 
    a.allocate_date_sk = c.allocate_date_sk,
    a.allocate_quantity = b.quantity
WHERE
    order_status = 'A'
        AND b.entry_date >= h.last_load AND b.entry_date < h.current_load
        AND b.order_number = a.order_number
        AND c.allocate_date = b.status_date ;

/* UPDATING the allocated order to Packed status              */
UPDATE sales_order_fact a,
    source.sales_order b,
    packing_date_dim d,
    cdc_time h
SET 
    a.packing_date_sk = d.packing_date_sk,
    a.packing_quantity = b.quantity
WHERE
    order_status = 'P'
        AND b.entry_date >= h.last_load AND b.entry_date < h.current_load
        AND b.order_number = a.order_number
        AND d.packing_date = b.status_date ;

/* UPDATING the packed order to Shipped status                */
UPDATE sales_order_fact a,
    source.sales_order b,
    ship_date_dim e,
    cdc_time h
SET 
    a.ship_date_sk = e.ship_date_sk,
    a.ship_quantity = b.quantity
WHERE
    order_status = 'S'
        AND b.entry_date >= h.last_load AND b.entry_date < h.current_load
        AND b.order_number = a.order_number
        AND e.ship_date = b.status_date ;

/* UPDATING the shipped order to Received status              */
UPDATE sales_order_fact a,
    source.sales_order b,
    receive_date_dim f,
    cdc_time h
SET 
    a.receive_date_sk = f.receive_date_sk,
    a.receive_quantity = b.quantity
WHERE
    order_status = 'R'
        AND b.entry_date >= h.last_load AND b.entry_date < h.current_load
        AND b.order_number = a.order_number
        AND f.receive_date = b.status_date ;

-- 更新时间戳表的last_load字段
UPDATE cdc_time SET last_load = current_load ;

COMMIT ;
清单(五)- 8-2

        图(五)- 8-2到图(五)- 8-8显示了对Kettle定时装载的修改。
图(五)- 8-2

图(五)- 8-3

图(五)- 8-4

图(五)- 8-5

图(五)- 8-6

图(五)- 8-7

图(五)- 8-8

        测试修改后的定期装载 本小节说明如何测试清单(五)- 8-2里的定期装载脚本和对应的Kettle转换。测试使用具有分配库房、出库、配送和收货里程碑的两个新订单。所以每个订单需要添加五行。清单(五)- 8-3里的脚本向源数据库里的sales_order表新增十行。
USE source;
INSERT INTO sales_order VALUES
  (52, 1, 1, '2015-03-11', 'N', '2015-03-20', '2015-03-11', 7500,
       75)
, (53, 2, 2, '2015-03-11', 'N', '2015-03-20', '2015-03-11', 1000,
       10)
, (52, 1, 1, '2015-03-12', 'A', '2015-03-20', '2015-03-12', 7500,
       75)
, (53, 2, 2, '2015-03-12', 'A', '2015-03-20', '2015-03-12', 1000,
       10)
, (52, 1, 1, '2015-03-13', 'P', '2015-03-20', '2015-03-13', 7500,
       75)
, (53, 2, 2, '2015-03-13', 'P', '2015-03-20', '2015-03-13', 1000,
       10)
, (52, 1, 1, '2015-03-14', 'S', '2015-03-20', '2015-03-14', 7500,
       75)
, (53, 2, 2, '2015-03-14', 'S', '2015-03-20', '2015-03-14', 1000,
       10)
, (52, 1, 1, '2015-03-15', 'R', '2015-03-20', '2015-03-15', 7500,
       75)
, (53, 2, 2, '2015-03-15', 'R', '2015-03-20', '2015-03-15', 1000,
       10)
;

COMMIT;
清单(五)- 8-3

        现在设置你的系统日期为2015年3月12日,然后再执行清单(五)- 8-2里的脚本或对应的Kettle作业。之后,设置你的系统日期从2015年3月13日到2015年3月16日,每个日期执行一次定期装载。

        执行五次定期装载后,查询sales_order_fact表的两条订单,SQL语句和结果显示如下。
mysql> select
    ->     order_number od,
    ->     order_date_sk od_sk,
    ->     allocate_date_sk ad_sk,
    ->     packing_date_sk pk_sk,
    ->     ship_date_sk sd_sk,
    ->     receive_date_sk rd_sk
    -> from
    ->     sales_order_fact
    -> where
    ->     order_number IN (52 , 53);
+------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
| od   | od_sk | ad_sk | pk_sk | sd_sk | rd_sk |
+------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
|   52 |  5549 |  5550 |  5551 |  5552 |  5553 |
|   53 |  5549 |  5550 |  5551 |  5552 |  5553 |
+------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

注意 5549-5553是2015年3月11日至2015年3月15日。
文章最后发布于: 2015-11-12 12:47:12
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